Thank you for posting it. My first impression was that it was a must-have for every vihuela-player. Than I realised that we all have it already! I recently played - or should I say tried to play? Your annotations to the music and the texts are a great contribution. I am just starting with the vihuela without instrument yet Thanks a lot! It is a pathway towards learning the instrument based on the development of musical knowledge and good taste.
At the conclusion of the lengthy discussion of these topics, Bermudo proposes a simple and rational method for learning to play the vihuela. As a didactic system, his emphasis differs notably from that which has prevailed in musical pedagogy since at least the nineteenth century inasmuch as it is based on the simultaneous acquisition instrumental technique and musical knowledge.
By doing this they will create for themselves a repertory that will help them develop the necessary technique, skill and good taste to go even further and invent their own works. He assumes that players will acquire these skills by as the natural by-product of the systematic learning process he proposes.
He proceeds from the simple to the difficult, starting with music in two voices, moving to homophonic works in three parts, and from there to imitative polyphony in four and more voices, and finally to the original fantasy of his readers. The method elaborated by Bermudo requires the vihuelist to gather polyphonic works and, using the techniques that the theorist explains with great detail, put them into tablature.
These pieces, then, serve to learn the procedures employed by master composers in the creation of their works. The approach I recommend is, therefore, to study the works initially in their polyphonic versions, just in the way that a sixteenth-century vihuelist would have done, playing each voice separately, getting to know it individually as well as understanding it in the context of the whole work.
By doing this, the vihuelist will become familiar with the individual shape of each line, the particular places in which it takes a prominent role in the work, as well as those in which it recedes into the background.
To make this easier, the imitative entries of each voice are indicated clearly in the scores given in the edition. Without needing to discuss here of the process of translating mensural notation into tablature, it should be noted that the works included in this new anthology match the musical genres and styles indicated by Bermudo.
The transcriptions. The versions of vocal polyphony in mensural notation are based on original sources, although they do not attempt to be critical transcriptions. In the few cases in which the tablature and the original vocal polyphony do not correspond exactly, I have modified the polyphonic transcription to provide a version of the polyphony work that hypothetically resembles the versions used by the vihuelists, based on the assumption that they often worked from variant versions.
Based on the intabulation practices of sixteenth-century vihuelists, there are small discrepancies between the surviving vocal versions and the tablatures in most of the works.
Most commonly, breves were broken into two semibreves, dotted notes were divided into two separate notes, passing notes or short diminutions were added, and cadences were ornamented. It has not been my intention here to provide transcriptions that reflect these modifications, except for musica ficta. The chromatic alterations made by the vihuelists in their tablatures are thus indicated above the respective notes in the transcriptions. In all the transcriptions, the rhythmic values of the original notation have been halved, and each two bars of the tablature make a single bar of the mensural transcriptions.
The transcriptions of the fantasias and other instrumental works are made as scores, with each voice on a separate staff, in order to facilitate study and analysis. In the same way as the vocal works, the principal themes of imitative episodes are enclosed in boxes, and vertical lines across the score indicate the principal section divisions of each work.
Two transcriptions are offered for each piece, for instruments tuned in G and E. These phrases encapsulate the two different ways of accommodating vocal polyphony onto the vihuela, both conceptually and in practice. Given that the present collection is based on intabulations made by vihuelists in the sixteenth century rather than newly intabulated works, the principal disadvantage of the system employed here is that the modern transcriptions do not always present the works in their original pitch and tonality.
Inquisitive players of the vihuela choose one of two practices in this respect: either they change the music to suit the instrument, or they change the instrument to suit the music. Let it be clear: it is a single instrument and it notes are fixed, and should the music be out of key when responding to a choir, or for some other reason that vihuelists might have, they change the music.
Thus, there are some vihuela players who always think of the vihuela as being in a fixed tuning, and if the music should not agree with their conception of the instrument, because it goes beyond the range of the frets, they transpose the music so that it can be comfortably played. This way of playing the vihuela used to be more common than it is now and there were players with great facility even if they were not as wise as those who these days use many vihuelas.
I deal with this subject following this present overview in chapter eighty-two. Those who did not know how to shift their frets used this way of intabulating on the vihuela and for their needs it was good. These days there are musicians who, not content with changing the music to suit the vihuela prefer to leave it as they find it and change the vihuela by not always imagining the sixth course to be one pitch, but pretend to raise or lower it according to the music.
They imagine, then, the lowest note of the vihuela sometimes to be G, other times A, and thus on all of the seven different notes, and even sometimes even on chromatic semitones. This is what good players do, and you will encounter it in both Spanish and foreign tablatures. Leaving aside the implications regarding temperament, the main point for preferring to change either the instrument or the music has to do with finding the best way of fitting polyphonic works onto the vihuela.
In the explanations that follow the cited passage, Bermudo advises that this depends first of all on the range of the work. In order to move the instrument rather than the music, he gives some general rules to follow in order that the music fits between the open sixth course and the seventh fret on the first, at the same time trying to get maximum use of the open strings.
Whether for pleasure or for didactic reasons, it was through the process of intabulating that they became aware of the compositional techniques of the most renowned composers of their age. For the majority of modern vihuelists, the situation is the reverse.
The proposal here is that vihuelists today enter further into the world of vocal polyphony and the musical style of the period —represented by the works presented here— firstly through a detailed study of the original polyphony, and then by applying this enhanced understanding to the solo intabulations, profiling each of the voices, emphasising imitative thematic entries, allowing less important voices to recede into the background, and shaping each voice according to its implicit expressiveness.
This anthology has been conceived to permit its use in several different situations. The transcriptions allow the study of each voice at a time, phrase by phrase, or imitation by imitation.
They should help the vihuelist to develop a capacity to unravel the polyphonic texture of any work notated in tablature, whether an intabulation or an original composition. The transcriptions are also designed so that they can be used in ensemble, with each voice played on a separate instrument. Playing in ensemble is a learning experience that gives musicians the opportunity to get to know each voice of the works in their polyphonic context and permits them to refine their appreciation of the subtleties of the music, and the role of each voice at any given moment within each work.
Las transcripciones. No hemos intentado reflejar estas modificaciones en las transcripciones. Los que no supieron mudar los trastes, usaron esta manera de poner en la vihuela, y para los tales era buena.
Sources of the tablatures Fuentes de las tablaturas. Daza, Esteban. Libro de Musica en cifras para Vihuela intitulado el Parnasso. Libro de Musica de Vihuela, intitulado Silva de sirenas. Fuenllana, Miguel de. Libro de Musica de Vihuela, intitulado Orphenica lyra. Sevilla: Martin de Montesdoca, Mudarra, Alonso. Tres libros de Musica en Cifras para Vihuela.
As a point of departure, Bermudo advises the novice vihuelist to begin with simple music in two voices:. The music you should use to commence ciphering should be villancicos firstly in two, and later in three voices of homophonic music in which the notes in each voice sound together. Intabulating these pieces requires hardly any effort because as the notes in each of the voices are of the same duration [at any given point] the number of notes in each bar will be the same.
For whoever might like to follow my advice: these intabulations are not worth playing, because it is not music of value and these pieces will not help you develop your ear. Homophonic villancicos do not have a sufficiently strong musical basis upon which to build and achieve good taste in invention [of your own music].
In this passage Bermudo recommends the use of simple villancicos as the way to start playing, first in two voices, then in three. His comments indicates that he did not consider this music to be of high quality, but that it had an important didactic purpose and was essential in the training of musicians, a first stepping-stone along the pathway to independence as instrumentalists and composers.
Apart from the control that is acquired in plucking and fingering, and from aiming to achieve musical fluidity and a clean attack, the principal musical function of these pieces seems to be for learning the rudiments of intervals and counterpoint.
The closest thing is the piece that opens our anthology, Si de amores me han de matar, a two-voiced villancico that is more polyphonic than homophonic. The only other two-part music that is found in vihuela books are fragments of polyphonic masses, those parts that were customarily composed with fewer voices than the sections that surround them.
Despite also being imitative rather than homophonic, these fragments are useful in helping, as Bermudo recommends, in assimilating the rudiments of counterpoint. En este pasaje recomienda utilizar villancicos sencillos para comenzar a tocar, primero a dos voces, y luego a tres. Among the hundred or so villancicos in vihuela sources, this is the one that comes closest to what Bermudo recommends to those beginning to learn the art of intabulation.
In his two-part version, Fuenllana transposes both voices an octave higher. Vihuela in A. Transposition for vihuela in G: a whole tone lower than the original. Passages of this type provide ideal study material for vihuelists to learn how master polyphonists composed simple two-part counterpoint. Como es el caso en este misa a cuatro voces de Josquin, era habitual entre los polifonistas del s.
Vihuela in D. Amerigo Bordoni. Transposition for vihuela in G: a fifth lower than the original. It is a model of two-voiced imitative counterpoint that develops from the themes constructed by Josquin for each of the two phrases of the text. Es un modelo de contrapunto imitativo a dos voces que se desarrolla a base de los temas que Josquin construye para cada una de las dos frases del texto. Vocal source: Missae tredicim quatuor vocum Nuremburg: Grapheus, Critical edition: Josquin, Werken, ed.
Transposition for vihuela in G: a fourth higher. This is the type of model that Bermudo recommends to beginner vihuelists, and although he never explicitly states it, it seems likely that he saw these largely homophonic works as an ideal way to learn harmony, both in terms of chord progressions as well as in terms of the logic of the fingerboard. Tablature: Daza, El Parnasso, fols. Apart from the musical beauty of these graceful works, and even though he does not say so specifically, they serve to teach harmony, the hand positions of common chords, and the chord progressions that are the basis of diatonic harmony:.
The works of this learned and erudite composer possess four qualities that make them worthy of comment here. The first is their graceful beauty that allows each [voice] to be sung in its own right and with such sonority that it seems as though it was composed to be sung alone. This point infers the second, that each [voice] is easy to sing and play, given their beauty. The third point is that they have many well-placed dissonances, and these sound well on the vihuela.
Their final quality is that this music is restrained and has neither an extreme range, nor are the voices spaced widely apart when they sound together as chords. The surviving vihuela books contain a good number of pieces that correspond to the works described by Bermudo. They are works of little difficulty that give pleasing musical results to an instrumentalist still in the first phases of learning. This group of works offers a logical progression for the vihuelist: the first two pieces are principally homophonic, while the two Mass sections are completely based on imitative counterpoint.
Touch the note for the string you want to tune and then turn the tuning pegs on your guitar and match it up with the note that is being played.
This application contains a wide variety of guitar chord tab complete the following guidelines. You will learn a variety of guitar chords easily start from C major D major E major F major G major main A, C minor D minor, major, E minor F minor G minor AB minor minor, and various types of chord tough, all will be easy for here you will be guided by, basic guitar chords clear and detailed and suspensions for classical guitar, acoustic guitar and electric guitar.
|Autor del sorteo :||dusomos|
|Idioma:||español, inglés, alemán|